Stepwise Division of Sama Gana


The Sama yoni mantras are chanted according to a Sama gana after a little variation in the syllables or words of the mantras. This variation is performed according to the indicated phonetic operations. There are six types of such operations of transformation often applied to the mantras in the Sama yoni; these are… 1. Vikara, (2) Vislesana,  (3)Vikarsana,  (4) Abhyasa,  (5) Virama and  (6) Stobha

The exact methods of Sama Gana are too difficult to be described here. Dedicated long term study and practice is required for grasping even a bit of it. However, for the purpose of general information, we have mentioned a few main points of the relevant subject matter. Continuing along these lines, we find that any scheme of Sama Gana can be divided into five successive parts as indicated below :

  1. Prastava: This is the first part of the hymn (rica) of a mantra that begins with a Sanskrit syllable “ha” and is chanted by a Ritvija who is of the rank of a prastota

2    Udgitha: This portion (of a mantra’s -rica) is sung by the pradhana (main) Ritvija. Its chanting begins with an “Oam”

3    Pratihara: This is like a portion, which links the next parts (steps) of the rica with the previous ones. Specific Ritvija called pratiharta, sings it. Sometimes, this part of the mantra is broken into two before chanting.

4    Upadrava: This step is sung by the Udgata

5    Nidhana: This represents the last two steps (parts) of the mantra (or its hymn) or only the self existent syllable, “Oam”, at the end of the mantra. This is “sung” jointly by the prastota, Pratiharta and Udgata

(Brahmacharya): The discipline of physical and mental chastity. It incorporates piety of character, stability of mind and body for natural avoidance or continence of erotic thinking, carnal desires, excitations and sexual indulgence.

(Brahman): The word “Brahmin” is a title, that represents without any constraint of case and creed, a truly learned, altruist person who lives for the welfare of the others and with the moral digninty of humanity.

(Devata or Deva) : A manifestation of divine powers. (most of the Gods worshiped in the Hindu system are referred in the shastras as the devatas of different vedic mantras. The devata of a mantra is the divine source, is indeed the core of the cosmic power (of Sabda) focused in the sublime sonic pattern of the letter

(Brahmananda): The cosmic macrocosm; the eternal omnipresent manifestation of the Supreme Cosciousness in the universe and the cosmic expansion.

(Alapa): A condinuous vocal musical tune set in a single accent before singing any classical raga

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